Master of Buddhism Course

This is a blog for the course comments from the Master of Buddhism course through the Universal Life Church Seminary.
The course can be found at Buddhism Course.

Saturday, December 31, 2011


Buddhist Studies
1.      What do you think it is about Vajrayana that makes it appeal to so many Westerners?
In my opinion it is the possibility that Vajrayana has the potential to achieve enlightenment within one lifetime that lends an appeal to Westerners.

2.      Which of the three paths—Theravada, Mahayana, or Vajrayana, appeals most to you? Why?
Mahayana appeals most me, especially the Zen teachings. It resonates with me because generally I like to believe that we are all one entity. Yes, we have many names for things and there is much suffering in this world, but in understanding that I see in all people regardless of religious background an ability to change under pressure.

This spiritual dexterity, in my opinion is frequently put to the test during crisis through which we as a sentient species constantly rise to a higher vibration causing spiritual revolution. To me the Creator is a loving god and gives us the ability to realize our desires for peace and understanding. In other ways the Creator appears to be cruel, but to me that is just His way of teaching people things and through the process of discovery this is how we unify and support each other. Mother Earth sustains us and asks little in return but we continually abuse Her and profane Her without the respect and dedication that we use the names of the other deities, or the way in which we revere Her. It is my belief that as the 14th Dali Lama said, it is possible to be of one faith and practice the rites of another as well, that we don't give ourselves enough credit for our abilities.

Whether one views these concepts through the Christian Holy Trinity, the enlightening of the Buddha or another other spiritual vehicle it is always possible to reach someone who is lost. That is why I firmly believe in the universal salvation we are offered in whatever mood it is delivered to us. I myself know that it is possible to fall very far from the pinnacle of goodly existence and still be given the opportunity to ground myself, center myself, love myself and more importantly light a path for others. I was always told I could do anything and that with my smarts I have the ability to be what I want to be, it is only now after I searched myself and considered the calling I've been given that I realize I always wanted to be a Priest but was too cowardly to accept the mantle. Now that He has called me I live for Him and to make others realize we can live in peace. Gnostic, atheist or whatever disbelievers call themselves they are always willing to consider the idea of a Higher Power which gives them a method to live on eternally if only in their works.

My view is that The Creator gives them this methodology as a means of understanding Him directly and in it's way becomes another religion. Mahayana resonates with me because it is structured but not too much so, doesn't involve having to travel to Asia to assimilate and offers a set of rituals that when properly performed provide a great deal of emotional relief and spiritual clarity through understanding the totality of the divine.

3.      Are there practices in Vajrayana which could be beneficial to all sentient beings? If so, which ones?
The entire concept of shedding oneself of imperfections is very beneficial. If it were possible to completely bring this sect temples, teachers and all all around to world and not too much of it's secrets made common knowledge it has serious potential to stand up and give Buddhism global presence. Keeping a secret is also a virtue that many of us should learn. I fear however that over time Vajrayana might become diluted as secrets are made too popular and that if it is followed improperly it has the potential to develop a seriously flawed offshoot. That said, what do I know of Vayrayana? I am merely a student with limited exposure to it.

Rev. Scott Luxon


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Wednesday, December 21, 2011


The Buddha is said to offer 84,000 categories of teachings to present them in twenty weeks in their historical and their practice context in a concise overview manner is a daunting task indeed. The course while not an in depth teaching of Buddhism succeeded in giving a good secular view of Buddhism. The questions asked could be better formulated and many of the references could be updated, some of the suggested reading was out of print.

The Buddha teaches us how to overcome suffering with The Four Noble Truths and it is the basis for all of the rest of his teachings. Better than just solving the problems others he gives them the tools to solve their own problems and end their suffering. he teaches us we must be our own savior. Through out the years of religious study I have come to believe that all religions are talking about the same experience and that which is unthinkable and unspeakable is the same for all. The conflict which arises is when we conceptually fabricate an explanation and rely on the words of others rather than experience for ourselves the great wonder of creation. The Buddha was a guide to the path of self exploration and knowledge in order to end ones own suffering. The method he used was meditation. The simplest and most effective way to experience this is simple.

Seek seclusion
Sit Still
Be quiet

All that can be known will be revealed, since we are that which we seek.

On November 15th I will enter a two month retreat and upon completion I will then begin a three year three month retreat at the Garchen Buddhist Institute in Chino Valley, Arizona. Thank you Rev. Mark for your moderation and thank you Rev. Amy for all the hard work that you have done.

Many Blessings and Prayers
Rev. Don Bowes
aka Konchog Jimpa a Drikung Kagyu monk.


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Friday, December 16, 2011

Buddhism Course

Master of Buddhism Course Wk1 assignment

Thank you for the information and thought provoking questions. I am searching the library for the books suggested, but have found many resources on line also. I have considered myself a student of Thich Nhat Hanh, though not a daily one. :)

Here are my answers for Week 1.


1. Does the story of Siddhartha Guatama, particularly in the years before he became the Buddha, ring true? Is it legend or hearsay? Does it matter?

When considering the life of Siddhartha Guatama it would seem that most would be true, but then there are those that have added embellishments of his latter part of the journey. The story of temptation is similar to that of Jesus. The trials sent by Mara to trouble Siddhartha would seem most likely that of myth. As would the story of Angulimala who could not catch Siddhartha. A myth created to emphasize the power of enlightenment. But from all writing there is a basis of truth, one that brings the reader to look within for self-enlightenment. Reading the legends, myths, stories, truthful tales, only serves to provide me with the hope of enlightenment. It really does not matter if it is truth or fiction, there is truth in both.

2. What does enlightenment mean to you?

Enlightenment is that state of mind where one can hear the truth. Discerning from lies and truth is difficult when living in the world, living for gain. Enlightenment is the result of allowing self to live the spiritual path, learning to listen to self, understanding motivations, hunger, desires, and of others. When enlightened there is no temptation, no stress, or need to worry. Each event is the result of personal choices.

3. Do you believe that enlightenment is possible? Is there more than one way to be enlightened? If so, what?

I do believe that enlightenment is very possible. Easy? Not particularly, especially when one is trained to live in the world, seeking material gain, and not living as the spiritual being we each are. I cannot think of any other way to become enlightened except to seek within, quieting the mind and recognizing a life time of training to react and fear. Through understanding the truth of self, of being human, the life of training, one may gain an enlightened way of life. 

619-663-1089 24 hour Voice Mail: Please leave a message.
Peace be with you.

Buddhism Online Course

Questions on Lesson 5

    1. Is the idea of karma uplifting or unsettling? Why?

If one is following the Precepts, living in the present moment, cultivating compassion, there is nothing unsettling about may be, in fact, comforting.  On the other hand, if one is haphazard in one's practice...hangs on to malice and negativity, is lacking in probably SHOULD - in the natural order - be rattled, but "being rattled" is more than likely not part of one's consciousness.  That, however, does not mean that Karma will not have it's way.  Thank of Christ's parable of the seed.

    2. Do you know anyone who exists in any or each of the symbolic worlds?

I surely know people that exist in each of the symbolic worlds.  I am most aware of the hungry ghosts, particularly in our current culture.  I am surrounded by people searching for fulfillment and spiritual nourishment, totally oblivious to the simple antidote...practicing compassion, doing good...always doing that which is right!

    3. How do the symbolic six worlds differ philosophically from our Western concepts of Heaven and Hell?

In not expounding upon the simple concept of cause and affect...sowing and attracting like energy...good and evil...reward and punishment.  I don't think there is a human being who hasn't been exposed from the cradle, experientially or by being taught, to this basic concept of living in this world...this question is addressed most fully. 

Jose Morelos No. 76
Tangancicuaro 59750 Michoacan Mexico
Tel: U.S.A. ~ 775-378-5107

Home; (011-52 from USA) + 355-553-
Cellular: 351-548-8456
Skype:  ronald.james.gilbertson

Thursday, December 15, 2011

ULC Buddism

Answers to questions for Week 4

1.      Why do you think Buddhism resonated so deeply with so many kings and rulers?

Buddhism resonated with kings and rulers because it brought them out of the horrendous, unmerciful and bloody conflict addicted political atmosphere...from the warring power grabs into a hope for a more compassionate world, where communities could dwell in harmony with all life and, hopefully, with each other.

    2.      What elements were necessary for the spread of Buddhism?

The teachings of the Buddha...the Dharma, emanating from the local monastic communities, the Sabghas, sanctioned by the local civil leadership were crucial to Buddhism spreading across continents,

    3.      What, if anything, could rulers of today's world learn from the dharma?

That there is a pathway out of suffering.  That all living beings are connected through their societal structures...that good for one is good for all; bad for one is bad for all.  One could relate this to the Christian concept  that the entire world and all living on it, are the "body of Christ."

Jose Morelos No. 76
Tangancicuaro 59750 Michoacan Mexico
Tel: U.S.A. ~ 775-378-5107

Home; (011-52 from USA) + 355-553-
Cellular: 351-548-8456
Skype:  ronald.james.gilbertson

Wednesday, December 14, 2011


The course taught me a lot about my chosen path, especially about the history.  In the 20 lessons it covers, most aspects are covered well.

"Buddhism is not a religion about doctrines or rituals,it is a religion about practice and enlightenment. Enlightenment is not about some type of trance or out of body experience(or salvation,my note), it is about being able to preform your daily tasks with understanding, loving kindness, compassion, and non violence."
Hermano Luis

Buddhism is also a philosophy.It is a way of life without a set dogma and with a set of guidelines to help us in life(this one and the next).One of the ways i have learned this is the 5 contemplations:

1.Old age will come;i have not outstripped old age.

2.Disease will come; I have not outstripped disease.

3.Death will come; I have not outstripped death.

4.All things near and dear to me are subject to alteration;subject to separation.

5.I am the result of my own deeds;whatever deed I do,skilled or unskilled, good or bad, I shall become heir to.

When this is taken in light with the 4 noble truths:1.  All life is suffering.

2.The cause of suffering is desire.

3.Suffering can be ended.

4.The way to end suffering is the 8 fold path. and the teachings of the 8 fold path,one begins to understand the teachings of the Buddha.

Buddhism as a philosophy also teaches us that if we become attached to the concept of"self",we cause suffering;not only for ourselves,but those around us.  Many (buddhist and non buddhist alike)misunderstand this.It is not a teaching of nothingness or non existence,but a teaching o whatever we do affects all.

The chant(prayer if you prefer):
"I go to the buddha for refuge"
"I go to the Dharma for refuge"
"I go to the Sangha for refuge"
sums this up.

We recognize that the historical Buddha(Siddhartha Gautama)was the first(that we know of)teacher who attained enlightenment and we strive to do the same.

When we take refuge in the Dharma,we are saying we choose to follow the teachings of the Buddha,and all who come after him,on our path to enlightenment.

To take refuge in the Sangha means to accept and understand that we are all part of a community at large(the world),therefore all actions affect the whole,now and later.

There is much more to this than i can or have covered here.To learn it
all would take more than one lifetime.

I leave with this quote:"Do not use what you learn about Buddhism to be
a better Buddhist.Use it to become a better what you already are"
the 14th Dali Lama

well amy,here it is.not a true masters discertation,but thankfully not
requried(i would probably never have gotten it done).if it meets with
your approval,i will post same to the board(without the personal
comments).if you feel it needs any changes,please feel free to note them and i
will do so.

my address is:

Mark A Lightfoot


The Universal Life Church is a comprehensive online seminary where we have classes in Christianity, Wicca, Paganism, two courses in Metaphysics and much more. I have been a proud member of the ULC for many years and the Seminary since its inception.

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As a long time member of ULC, Rev. Long created the seminary site to help train our ministers. We also have a huge selection of Universal Life Church  minister supplies. Since being ordained with the Universal Life Church for so many years and it's Seminary since the beginning, I've watch the huge change and growth that has continued to happen.

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Saturday, December 3, 2011

Answers to question for Week 3


1.      Could the fact that the Dharma wasn't written by the Buddha himself be problematic?   If so, in what ways?
The fact that the Dharma was not written by the Buddha himself is not problematic in that at the heart of the Dharma...the foundation and soul of the Dharma are THE THREE JEWELS.   These precepts are clear enough and basic enough to leave no space for misinterpretation or misapplication.

2.      Imagine you are preparing to go for refuge. What necessary changes would you need to make in your life first?
To one who is seeking to become enlightened, taking refuge means a continuing commitment to pursuing enlightenment and following in the footsteps of those who have already achieved it. It contains an element of confidence that enlightenment is real, and that it is in fact a refuge
 Along with taking refuge, many make a commitment to abide by certain precepts, namely:
        ·Do not kill
        ·Do not steal
        ·Do not engage in sexual misconduct
        ·Do not lie
        ·Do not abuse intoxicants
        ·Do not speak of others' errors and faults
        ·Do not elevate yourself and blame others
        ·Do not be stingy
        ·Do not give vent to anger
        ·Do not defile the Three Jewels of Refuge
        ·Do not create evil
        ·Practice good
        ·Actualize good for others

3.      When going for refuge, are you relying on forces outside of yourself for peace of mind, or are the Three Jewels ultimately found inside yourself?
The 3 Jewels are only found within oneself.

Jose Morelos No. 76
Tangancicuaro 59750 Michoacan Mexico
Tel: U.S.A. ~ 775-378-5107

Home; (011-52 from USA) + 355-553-
Cellular: 351-548-8456
Skype:  ronald.james.gilbertson

Lesson six Master of Buddhism

PLease see attached Lesson Six in this series.

Best wishes


P.S. I am enjoying the course and the teachings.

Fw: Questions lesson 5

See email for lesson five.

----- Forwarded Message -----
From: terry beverton <>
To: "" <>
Sent: Sunday, 27 November 2011, 13:18
Subject: Questions lesson 5

Please see attached answers to lesson 5.

Best wishes


Wednesday, November 30, 2011

Buddhism Course

1.      Why do Zen Buddhists strive to break the language barrier? Have you had an experience where language has gotten in the way of something intrinsic?
(a) Buddhism becomes an inclusive religion when it is shared with people who desire something better in their lives. The various sects within the religion appeal to different types of thinkers, as any great religion should. The capacity for expansion of wisdom attracts people who are compassionate, creative and practical. Practical Buddhist Masters have an urge to enlighten and save as many people as possible to ease their suffering. This universal compassion makes it inevitable that the teaching of how to become a Buddha extends across territorial and linguistic challenges.

 (b) I spent some months in a government program called Katimavik where language became a big issue. It was part of the main sources of many of our group's problems. The actual problem was the attitudes of the participants towards teaching each other how to speak the other language. We would have group meetings in Quebec where I would function as a translator from French to English, during which I only understood most of what was being said and had to rapidly translate it to English for the people who didn't understand all the French. The result was that over time the French resented those of us who were English because we could not integrate enough of what they were saying to the experience. I am told the U.S.A. has a similar program called the Youth Corps. Inevitably much of the group decisions we voted on were determined by the attitudes between les Francophones and the Anglophones, or the Vegetarians and the non-vegetarians etc. The intention behind the experience was to provide the opportunity to learn the other language while in a part of the country where the locals spoke that language. In that it succeeded, I learned to know French. However eight years later I do not listen to French, watch French or even speak French with others even though I live in a city with a relatively large French population.

2.      Why do you think the text compiling koans is called the Gateless gate?
Gates do not necessarily require keys, in fact a gateless gate implies there is no barrier at all. koans, not having a specific answer, are like a gate with no lock. You can climb over it, you can go around it or you can walk beneath it: any way you get through it though you have to pass it. With this design there is no barrier except the wrong answer which a tool to think with, and so brilliantly it becomes a foolproof path through a challenge of understanding that which is not known and a window into clarity.
3.      Why do you think Zen is so appealing to Westerners?
Zen has grown as a sect to such an extent that it has succeeded in developing many Masters. The appeal of a religion with many teachers, unlimited wisdom and few ritual requirements lends itself quite ideally to the Western way of life. Zen Buddhism can be a riddle in the morning, a path through the day and a home for the spirit at night. This, in a fast-paced, get ahead, multicultural and sarcastic society which oftens blames religions for causing problems rather than seeing them as a method to solving them. In this respect Zen is a very good religion for the majority of people in Western life, regardless of their amount of free time, money or life challenges.

Rev. Scott


The Universal Life Church is a comprehensive online seminary where we have classes in Christianity, Wicca, Paganism, two courses in Metaphysics and much more.

Sunday, November 27, 2011

Buddhism and Nature.

1. Avalokitesvaras Birthday , its on a full Moon.
2. Mean to live your  life.
3. Yes because  there to meany people die, of daises from meat. 

Emily Stevenson
Wise Owl 
Esha'al Reja

Questions lesson 5

Please see attached answers to lesson 5.

Best wishes


Thursday, November 24, 2011

Lesson TWO


I:   The Four Noble Truths, which include the Eightfold Path, describe the true nature of existence, and the means to live in harmony with that nature.

By tradition, the preaching of the Four Noble Truths was the first sermon given by the Buddha, after he became the Awakened One.

It is said that The Four Noble Truths, and what they infer, are Buddhism itself. There are many traditions, schools, sects of Buddhism, but the Four Noble Truths are acknowledged in all of them, because they are foundational. They describe why Buddhism is needed, and what constitutes the essence of the practice of Buddhism. There may be various practices and ideas within Buddhism, but they are merely different expressions of the essence as expressed in the Four Noble Truths.

2.  What is the unifying concept of these guidelines?

The Four Noble Truths includes the Eightfold Path, describing the true nature of life, and the means to harmonius existence with that nature.

3.    What do you think the Buddha would have to say today about "Right Livelihood?" Can you think of any positions in today's workforce that he might use as an activity one should avoid?

Right Livelihood is, first, a way to earn a living without compromising the Precepts. It is a way of making a living that does no harm to others. In the Vanijja Sutta (this is from the Sutra-pitaka of the Tripitaka), the Buddha said, "A lay follower should not engage in five types of business. Which five? Business in weapons, business in human beings, business in meat, business in intoxicants, and business in poison."

Reverend Ronald Gilbertson, O.S.B.
Jose Morelos No. 76
Tangancicuaro 59750 Michoacan Mexico
Tel: U.S.A. ~ 775-378-5107

Home; (011-52 from USA) + 355-553-
Cellular: 351-548-8456
Skype:  ronald.james.gilbertson

Saturday, November 19, 2011

Lesson 16. Women in Buddhist. Exercise.

1. She was Buddha's Wife.

2.  Not Really,  Why not: because the 8 strict rules make senses if you learn them wright.

3. The Women is your mother lets us respect them .

Emily Stevenson
Wise Owl 
Esha'al Reja

Friday, November 18, 2011


Buddhism Course through the ULC
Buddhism stresses mindfulness, minding mind, and meditation as a way to calm and train our restless minds. Rather than worrying about sin and guilt, it teaches us how to eliminate suffering in this life and hopefully come to full awareness so that we can help others eliminate their suffering in this world.

Buddhism is about learning objectivity in all things. Clearing our lives of attachment and desire, we can go about our lives in peace and tranquility. Clearing the mind of clutter, we can see clearly what we were meant to do and the path to doing it.

With Buddhism there is no condemnation of others beliefs, no charge from the Sangha to go forth and try and change all of humanity into becoming Buddhists. There is a quiet sanity in Buddhism that seems to be lacking in other major religions.

Yes, Buddhism has undergone some of the schisms that other major religions have but the differing schools still teach minding the mind, compassion for all sentient beings, non-violence and meditation as a tool to focus on enlightenment.

I am of the Mahayana tradition, but I study some of the Theravada school teachings, read the Pali Canon and the Abhidhamma studies and it in no way interferes with my practice. My only desire in this lifetime is that I reach as high a state of awareness as possible and that I might be able to eliminate suffering for a few sentient beings.

By practicing mindfulness, we allow ourselves to accept others’ beliefs, frailties, and attachments knowing that we all suffer when we become mired in the muck of what we call reality. I tell people who ask me what Buddhism is about that it is mostly about compassion for all beings and holding everything with an open hand. (By this I mean not clinging to or desiring anything of this reality.)

I perform marriages for all different religious beliefs but I have very few people who have me perform Buddhist ceremonies for them. I think they prefer to promise that they will be together forever rather than answer “yes” to the following question:

When it comes time to part, do you pledge to look back at your time together with joy--joy that you met and shared what you have--and acceptance that we cannot hold on to anything forever?

Impermanence is the main belief in Buddhism, the teaching that everything comes into existence through cause and effect and ceases to exist the same way. So clinging to anything is futile and will in the end cause suffering in this lifetime and the next.

Karma is an effect of the causes of our ignorance and craving, so as we learn to relinquish our hold on the things that we think are important, we will we reap the rewards of our actions. Right action, right effort, and right speech, these are the ways we can accomplish mindfulness and create a better life now and in the next lifetime.

The quote from Einstein pretty much says it all: "Buddhism has the characteristics of what would be expected in a cosmic religion for the future: it transcends a personal God, avoids dogmas and theology; it covers both the natural & spiritual, and it is based on a religious sense aspiring from the experience of all things, natural and spiritual, as a meaningful unity."

Rev. Vicki A Bennett D.D.


The Universal Life Church is a comprehensive online seminary where we have classes in Christianity, Wicca, Paganism, two courses in Metaphysics and much more.

Ordination with the Universal Life Church, is free,  and lasts for life, so use the Free Online Ordination, button.We also offer many free wedding ceremonies for your use.

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Monday, November 14, 2011

Questions to Part I - Buddhism

- One -

Does the story of Siddhartha Guatama, particularly in the years before he became the Buddha, ring true? Is it legend or hearsay? Does it matter?

Response:  It does not matter.  I've read Hesse's SIDDHARTHA and as when I read The Life of Christ, I was inspired to want to know more about the principles, the Noble Truths and the progression of the Buddha's followers through the ages.  Whether or not the back story is legendary, fact, or both is inconsequential to the fact that a spark was ignited that began a movement based on real teachings of one man (perhaps a conglomerate of several people) that began a movement that attracted followers of all intellectual and religious levels and culminated in one of the great religions of the world by 2011.

- Two -

What does enlightenment mean to you?

For me, Enlightenment is the cognizant knowledge that reality is perception and that our individual Truths are perception...totally relative to each individuals experience and vision.  With ACCEPTANCE, perceptions become clear as to whether they are right or wrong.  Knowing right from wrong is clarity...and clarity opens us up to the cosmic experience...being aware of all, accepting that we are moving through this life in pain...and that the way out is full circle to Enlightenment and Acceptance.  Enlightenment moves us forward to Truth...the great mystery...the next level of life experience.

- Three -

Do you believe that enlightenment is possible? Is there more than one way to be enlightened? If so, what?

We can not know if Enlightenment is possible until we have attained it...we can not know there is a heaven until we have entered it.  The path to Enlightenment, and/or Salvation, is through meditation, living in the present moment, acceptance, gratitude and compassion for other beings.  It has occurred to me that by consistent living the path to enlightenment IS Enlightenment.

Note to instructor:  Are answers to the questions to be more expanded upon and should they include reference points in the written material at hand?

Thank you.

Jose Morelos No. 76
Tangancicuaro 59750 Michoacan Mexico
TEL: Home; (011-52 from USA) + 355-553-5618
Cellular - 3515488456
Skype:  ronald.james.gilbertson

Saturday, November 12, 2011

Buddhism Lesson. 15 : Buddhist Laity.

1.  Yes the place of pilgrimage are still there as an example of existence.

2. Meet the living Buddha.

b. They can get married.
Emily Stevenson
Wise Owl
Esha'al Reja

Monday, November 7, 2011


Michael S Barth
Master of Buddhism Final Essay

      This course about Buddhism was fascinating.  I have heard people talk about it but I never knew too much about Buddhism.  I felt that this course was presented well with great explanations of Buddhism terms and ideas/concepts were.  I started learning things about Buddhism from the very first lesson that I received to the very last lesson.
      I really loved the first lesson and how Buddhism got started.  I did not know that Buddha meant the enlightened one.  I always had thought that Buddha was the actually name of the person who started and founded Buddhism.  I did not know that the Buddha's actually name was Siddhartha Gautama.  I found his early life, before founding Buddhism, very fascinating.  I was very surprised that he had never left his home until he was 29 years old.  I also learned that the Bodhi Tree- the Tree of Enlightenment- was the tree that Siddhartha Gautama was sitting/meditating under when he experienced enlightenment.  I also enjoyed how he set out to explain to people how he had found enlightenment.
      I also liked learning about the Four Noble Truths.  I had heard of the term the Four Noble Truths before taking this class but did not know what the Four Noble Truths consisted of.  I am glad that this class went into each of the Four Noble Truths and how the Buddha explained them to his first disciples.  I had also had heard the term the Eightfold Path but did not know what the eight different points were in the Eightfold Path.  I enjoyed how this course described the Eightfold Path.
            The topic of the Three Jewels was totally new to me.  I had never heard of the Three Jewels before.  I was really grateful that the Three Jewels (The Buddha, The Dharma, and The Sangha) were explained beautifully in this class.  This class went into some detail about the Three Jewels and learned quite a lot about the Three Jewels.  Also, I enjoyed the lesson about the Buddhist Councils that were held and what was discussed at these council meetings.  I liked how this course explains how the world ended up with different branches of Buddhism that came out of the Second Buddhist Council.
            I liked the section on how Buddhism spread into the different countries in Asia and then into the West.  I feel that it is too bad that some of these countries that people practice Buddhism have tried to control Buddhism or eliminate Buddhism (e.g. China, etc.).  I was surprised that the Dalai Lama had been exiled from Tibet since 1979.  I know who the Dalai Lama is but did not know he had been exiled for so long.
            Karma was covered in this class and I was glad that I learned how and what Karma is and is not.  The Wheel of Life was something totally new to me.  I did not know that there is a pig, rooster, and a snake at the very center or that the two paths around the center are the dark path and the white path.  I also did not know before about the six realms around the Wheel of Life.
            Some other topics I enjoyed learning about include enlightenment, meditation, and the different branches of Buddhism.  I did not know that the Dalai Lama was the leader of Tibetan Buddhism.  I had previously had thought that he was the leader of all Buddhists in the world.
            This was a great course for me.  I learned a lot and each lesson contained a lot of information that I had never known before and could go on much longer about all the other things that I learned in this course.  I am glad that I took this course because I think it is important for me to know about other religions/philosophies when I do my work with people.  I think this class is worth taking and I think that this course would broaden the horizons of a lot of people who do not know very much about Buddhism.


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Saturday, November 5, 2011

Lesson 14. Monastic. Exercise:

1. The understanding of the faith like a code to live by.

2. Only if you wish to no longer to stay in the Monastery.

3.  You mean he must wake up the Unwakable.

 Emily Stevenson
Wise owl
Esha'al Reja

Sunday, October 30, 2011


Master of Buddhism
Majick W. RavenHawk

This particular class is written quite well.  I have been a practicing Zen student for over 30 years and I am glad to see all the different nuances within Buddhism covered. It is not only learning about the philosophy/religion that is important , yes we are better human beings by learning the differences of each culture and religion.  What I find is that it is better to live the experience. By finding what resonated with your inner being and following your heart allowing your true essence to find its purpose while here on this planet at this time.

The understanding that we are all Buddha and Buddha in nature we can come to grasp that we are all interconnected in the essence of consciousness.  There is truly no "us and them", there is only the oneness.   It struck me as incomprehensible when I witnessed a man on the news ranting about how he did not think it was his place to help those who were in need during this recession and had lost their homes.  He stated that it was their own fault for making bad judgment calls on investments and having little savings.  He felt that if they had to live on the streets so be it as long as he took care of himself.  The ranting was loud and full of rage.  I wondered if somewhere down the line he might not suffer the fate of those he refused to help and how he would feel if others turned their backs on him.  Whether or not people understood what they were getting into during the time of greed and attachment one good thing has come from it.  It has shown how painful it is to have such great attachment to the material so much so that one loses their own identity and becomes the "things".  It has also produced many who understand and have reached out in compassion to help those struggling during these times.

As the Buddha taught that attachment only brings suffering is so true.  Without the attachment there is no suffering because the "want" no longer drives us and the "things" not longer define who we are.  We are part of the collective consciousness or unconsciousness. The choice is ours.  Should we decide to suffer or reach a point of non-suffering, it is ultimately up to us and what resonates with our very being.  Should we awaken or slumber in our suffering.


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Friday, October 28, 2011

Lesson. 13 Exercise.

1. The Words Tibet and Tantra.

2.  Mahayahana , I pray to Kwan Yin.

3. Yes, Tantra and deity Yoga.
Emily Stevenson
Wise Owl 
Esha'al Reja

Buddhist Council

PLease see answers attached.

Terry Beverton

Monday, October 24, 2011


      My interest in this class on Buddhism came about because of my interest in daily meditation, mindfulness, the books of the latest Dalai Lama, and the way I feel the God or spirit connection through nature and my garden. I have taken a local class in Buddhist meditation and connected greatly with the special classes on mindful walking and eating, as I have a practice of both walking and eating fast. Each practice has brought about a slowing down that has brought a special awareness of simple things of joy that have added much peace to a otherwise sometimes stressful life.  
    As I studied the weekly classes I liked the simple ways taught of kindness, compassion and a path to peace though non violence.  While my fundamental Christian family would not like the idea of me as comparing Jesus and Buddha as brothers, for most who have grown up with knowledge of just their own faith can never see beyond their own teachings, I personally, began to see each in a new light after this study. 

I could see Jesus and the Buddha as almost twins or best friends of like minds in many ways, but as with my on Christian religion (that I find myself disappointed in at times) I found myself thinking as Jesus or the original Buddha might if each returned to day to evaluated or grade the current spiritual practices carried out in their behalf.  I feel sure that each would be highly disappointed and would no doubt give both spiritual paths a D minus when it came to caring forth the original mission of each man.  Jesus did not like the emphases on rules of his Jewish heritage that miss the point of love, compassion, forgiveness and love and perhaps the Buddha heard so much about all the Hindi gods and all their rules that he did not even want to utter the name God when it came to spiritual faith for he felt even that word had been misused so much it left the real meaning of a higher power wanting for something more.  AND YET look at both faith each have come down to proving ones faith by the keeping of rules, rules and rules.

   I heard a lecture lately where the speaker said, that when mankind could study all faith and find common ground and not criticism of one being better than the other then perhaps the world would grow a little closer to peace.  I listened and thought to myself perhaps both Jesus and the Buddha saw this too and tried to help guide mankind's heart and eyes to viewing all mankind as one with the focus on Love and Soul and not the ego and rules, rules, rules.  

  I found myself wondering as we all become more and more educated and study all the many faiths maybe we will see the common ground and not the differences and move a little closer to peace. It would be nice to think that could come soon, though Jesus lived over 2000 years ago and Buddha long before him, and yet all things began with a vision and a dream and we must continue to carry their dreams forward for a better future for all mankind.
Rev. Linda Francis

Ordination with the Universal Life Church, is free,  and lasts for life, so use the Free Online Ordination, button.

As a long time member of ULC, Rev. Long created the seminary site to help train our ministers. We also have a huge catalog of Universal Life Church  materials.  I've been ordained with the Universal Life Church for many years and it's since the beginning and have loved watching the continual growth of the seminary.

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Saturday, October 22, 2011

Lesson 12. Zen Buddhism Exercise!

1. Zen master throwing Buddha Statues into a fire , forbidding disciples to speak the name of Buddha. This is no disrespectful, must not rely on external things such as  language or objects. Turn inward to find truth.
a.  Yep all the time , language, bad language!

2.  Koan is a puzzle or question which  defies reason.

3.  Because they  love Meditation! 

4. Love the joke.   
Emily Stevenson
Wise Owl 
Esha'al Reja

Saturday, October 15, 2011

Mahayana Buddhism exercise answers

1. a. Jesus is a Bodhisattva
b. More Compassion over Wisdom.
c. There is less on Siddhartha Gautama Buddha, and more on Amitabha or Shakyamuni, Bodhisattva ideas.

2. It is mind of awakening , the one who long to help humanity.

3. Because  there look for there own way to save there self with out the control of the Church. At list that how I look at this. 
Esha'al Reja


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Monday, October 10, 2011


Buddhism Course
The Decline of Buddhism in India 
By Rev. Herbert Jensen

Until King Asoka (c. 270-232 BCE) converted to his wife's religious belief in Buddhism, it was just one of many small sects. From the 2nd Century BCE to the 12th Century CE, Buddhism grew to be the predominant religion practiced on the Indian sub-continent, which consists primarily Afghanistan, Pakistan, the disputed region of Kashmir, the modern state of India, plus Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka.

The 12th Century CE Moslem Invasion of India resulted in the mass killing of Buddhist monks, devastation of all Buddhist monasteries, and enslavement of Buddhist nuns as temple prostitutes. It survived only in the independent Himalayan kingdoms of Bhutan and Sikkim; among some tribal groups in the mountains of Northeast India; and in Sri Lanka.

There were isolated attempts to revive Buddhism during British Colonial Rule. Most important was the foundation of the Mahabodhi Society (Society of Greater Enlightenment) in 1891. Although its initial objective was to wrest control of the Buddhist shrine at Gaya from Hindu control, the Society greatly stimulated the popularity of Buddhist philosophy and its historical importance in India's past. By the late 1890s, recognizable Buddhist communities were alive in Sri Lanka, South India, Bengal, and other localized areas.

With the 1956 mass conversion of 500,000 untouchables (dalits) to Buddhism by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, a member of the Indian Parliament, that sizeable numbers of Indians became practicing Buddhists. They are generally termed Neo-Buddhist (Nava-Baudha) as they do not adhere to either Mahayana or Hinyana, the two traditional schools of Buddhism. As of 1991 there were about 6.32 million Buddhists in India almost 80% of which resided in the state of Maharashuttra and in the city of Nagpur. Buddhism is now the fifth largest religious group in modern-day India.1

Infiltration and Persecutions by Brahmins

The Vedas collectively refers to a corpus of ancient Indo-Aryan religious literature composed in Verdic Sanskrit between 1500 BCE and 500 BCE that are associated with the Vedic civilization. The religion of the Vedic civilization is the predecessor of classical Hinduism. The use of Vedic Sanskrit continued up to the 6th century BCE, when the Indo-Aryan culture began to be transformed into classical forms of Hinduism under challenges from Buddhism and Jainism.

The Vedic Civilization is the Indo-Aryan culture associated with the Vedas and dates back to the 2nd and 1st millennia BCE with origins possibly stretching as far back as the Mehrgarh Culture in the 7th millennium BCE. The rituals and sacrificial rites of Vedic liturgy are mainly reflected in the text of the four Vedas. The religion centered on a clergy, drawn from the Brahmin caste, administering sacrificial rites and the chanting of Vedic hymns. The priests thereby led and assisted the common man to pray for production of children, cattle, and wealth.

Hindu tradition regards the Vedas as uncreated, eternal and being revealed to sages (i.e. Rishis). In later Hinduism, the Vedas hold an exalted position as divine revelation. The Brahmin caste's important role in Hindu religious life was used to establish its superior social status and to justify its exercise of dominion over the lower castes. Both Buddhism and Jainism repudiated the authority of the Vedas and developed separate religions, which challenged the legitimacy and power of Brahmin caste.

For example, Buddha's injunction against improper sexual activities (mithyachara) was directed towards practices found in Vedic Brahmanism. The institution of marriage was extremely weak with relationships like brother-sister and father-daughter commonly ignored. Fertility rites also required priests "to satisfy the sexual need of any woman approaching them at the time of yajhyas, then and there in open ground, in presence of Vedic fire."2

A Brahmin is a member of a particular division in the Indo-Aryan caste system, which was composed of four intransient sections (varnas): Brahmin (priests), Kshatriya (warriors), Vaishya (commoner), and Shudra (servant). The fifth (sometimes erroneously clubbed into the fourth) section is the Dalit (untouchables). The Brahmins are believed to be responsible for society's spiritual progress. Like evangelical Christians, person born into a Brahmin family becomes twice-born (dvija) after their initiation into Vedic education (upanayana). The Brahmins are further divided into priestly and non-priestly castes.

Brahmins are and always have been a very small minority group in India. In 1931, Brahmins were 4.32% of the total population. The Brahmins, even in Uttar Pradesh, where they are most numerous, constitute just 9% of the total populace. In Tamil Nadu they form less than 3% and in Andhra Pradesh they are less than 2%.

The Brahmins propagated specialization of an extreme order, and also restricted social mobility under the caste system. They declared themselves the intellectual bureaucracy in the fields of science, war, literature, religion, and the environment. As the exclusive custodians of religious lore and most educated caste, Brahmins were able to control every sphere of influence in community life. Hindus considered the proper enunciation of verses by Brahmin priests as essential for prosperity and success in war and harvests. Kshatriyas, the second ranking caste perpetuated this order by amassing wealth and commissioning the performance of sacrifices.

Brahmins and Kshatriyas formed the core of each kingdom's civil service. They also developed a law enforcement role that maintained order within the caste system thereby ensuring its perpetuity. This was accomplished through an assembled court of Brahmin intellectuals and Kshatriyas warriors. These courts distributed the finances of their treasuries and also maintained the kingdom's budgets with the assistance of ministers.

Due to the existence of the caste-system, the Brahmins had access to resources that the rest of the Hindu society did not. They quickly adapted to changing conditions and used their influence and money to get into lucrative fields and make a name for themselves. To their credit, they also did well in learning and professional fields like accountancy, medicine, engineering, and business. The Brahmin goals have been the spiritual enlightenment, peace, and prosperity of the whole society. Brahmins played an extraordinary role in the spread of knowledge and vitalizing the Indian society for millennia and resulted into extraordinary diversity of Indian cultures and religious traditions.

The lower caste Indians were by no means satisfied or content with their condemnation to an inferior social standing and exclusion from positions of power and wealth. Even though the first disciples of Buddha were all Brahmins, early Buddhism drew the bulk of their converts from the lower castes who were attracted by its egalitarian principles. To counter this, the Brahmanism morphed into Hinduism by assimilating Buddhist teachings such as "the disapproval of animal sacrifice, the relaxation of caste rules, and the organization of a monastic community along the lines of the Buddhist Sangha."3 This evolution was aided greatly by the fact that the philosophical subtleties of Buddhist reasoning attracted a large number of Brahman to study as monks in Buddhist centers of learning.

Prior to the emergence of Buddhism as the major religion in India, the authoritative position of Brahmin priests in society went unchallenged.4 Buddhist monks, however, had the intellectual abilities and requisite education to advise kings on matters of state. In fact many Brahmans had become Buddhist leaders by virtue of their learning. Individual Buddhists had no bar to civil service employment. As a result of this threat to Brahmin dominance or hegemony, both Buddhists and Jains alike were the victims of outright defamation by the Brahmins throughout the millennium of Buddhist presence in India.

For example, Buddha role as an incarnation of Vishnu was to beguile demons. The Brahmins then argued that Buddhist teachings were developed to attract demons as followers so that they could eventually be destroyed. The low caste heritage of Buddhist converts gave rise to many popular myths concerning the shame associated with their inferiority. The sight of a Buddhist monk, even in dreams, was said to be an inauspicious sign. Brahmins considered it a principal sin to enter the abode of a Buddhist even in time of great peril.5 In this manner, Buddhists were cast by Hindu scholars as no better than the untouchables with whom "all social contact must be broken, even looking at a heretic necessitates lengthy expiations. The Hindu who dines with a Buddhist goes to hell."6

The last flowering of Buddhist thought came after the founding of the Buddhist monastic university at Nalanda in the 5th century CE. In the following centuries, the last three major Buddhist philosophers, Chandrakirti (c. 550-600 CE), Shantarakshita (c. 680-740 CE), and Kamalashila (c. 740-790), developed syncretic schools of thought in response to the rebuttal of Buddhist doctrine by Hindu philosophers. Buddhism, as a religious group, experienced a marked decline thereafter as Buddhism devolved into a core of elite scholar-monks studying in the great monastic universities like Nalanda and Vikramashila in northern India.

Buddhism's loss of its strong point, philosophy, to Hindu scholars caused it to fail in attracting new talent so the number of Buddhist monks began to tail off. By contrast, the Hindu religious teacher Shankara (788-820 CE) spent his life as a wandering monk combating Buddhist atheism.

To the Indian mind, aethism was the original sin of Buddhism for which a tardy, though inescapable, Nemesis was worked out in its ultimate disappearance. . . . But the Buddhist denial of God implied an outrage on the spiritual craving of man, which no amount of righteousness could redeem and no intellectual integrity could condone. 7

Shankara argued that the real world is an illusion (maya), which the body's soul must transcend in order to achieve oneness with brahman. To perpetuate his beliefs in the Vedas, Shankara founded five seats of learning in the current Indian states of Utter Pradesh, Gujarat, Orissa, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu. An orange-clad order of monks, which adopted Shankara's philosophy (Shankara Acharyas), still occupies those seats today and periodically sends its acharyas away from their home monasteries to visit and preach to devotees.

Buddhism retreat from Hindu intellectuals into monastic communities and educational centers away from the hearts of local communities left easily identifiable targets for the 12th Century CE Moslem invaders. The Buddhists clergy, cloistered in secluded locales, could be wantonly slaughtered en mass. In comparison, the widely dispersed adherents of Hinduism presented few easy target of opportunity, which caused the 12th Century Moslems to concentrate on converting Hindus rather than killing their scattered population. Consequently Hinduism survived in India while Buddhism was almost completely disappeared.

Ineffectual Relations with the Laity

Buddhists monks and nuns lived in the splendid isolation of well-endowed monasteries. The comforts of monastic life so contrasted with the everyday plight of the ordinary Indian that the monasteries became very selective in admitting monks to fellowships. Usually they came from the upper classes including the Brahmins who had the requisite intellectual abilities to study the Buddhist Suttras. This eventually "conspired to sever [Buddhism] from the grass-roots piety of the populace."8

The Buddhist víhãras of Medieval India chiefly relied for their support on ancient endowments and occasional royal donations and seem to have paid little attention to the religious needs of the local laity . . . . [I]t was always the Brahmans who were called upon to assist in the most solemn family rites.9

Because they did not believe in rituals, especially sacrificial offerings and fecundity rites, Buddhists monks and nuns never became integrated in quotidian life. The populace thus came to associate Buddhism as an indistinguishable part of Hinduism with Buddha as another god among the many they worshiped. Specifically, Buddha came to be considered the ninth manifestation (i.e. avatar) of the god Vishnu some time around the 8th Century CE. This "cut the ground from under the feet of Buddhism"10 as it could no longer maintain a clearly distinct identity from Hinduism. Moreover, Buddhism's "pessimism, atheism, and generally rarified character were unsatisfying to the Indian genius."11

Thus the suppression and annihilation of Buddhism in India by the Mongols starting in 1192 could be accommodated as a mere hiving off of a part of Hinduism which was not a fundamental part of Indian life allowing Hindu rites, rituals, and practices to be conducted relatively unfettered. The Buddhist monasteries, shrines, and stupas left standing by the Muslim invaders were unceremoniously converted to shrines for other gods in the Hindu Parthenon. The tolerance and even welcome of all possible ideas and beliefs, alongside the rejection of any social innovation, remains characteristic of Hindu attitudes."12

Schisms and Heterodox Sects

The Buddhism also failed to survive in India because it failed to found a real "church" with a single, unified faith. At the first Buddhist Council, convened about three months after Buddha passed away, only the Dharma taught by Buddha and the Vinaya rules governing the conduct of his disciples were orally codified. While there was no dissent on the Dharma, the Vinaya prompted enough lively discussion that Maha Kassapa, the most revered and senior monk, who was presiding over the Council, declared that no rule laid down by the Buddha should be changed and that no new ones should be added. This edict had the same fate as The Wonderful "One-Hoss Shay" described in Oliver Wendell Holmes's (1858) poem:

That was built in such a logical way

It ran a hundred years to a day,

And then, of a sudden . . .

[I]t went to pieces all at once, --

All at once, and nothing first, --

Just as bubbles do when they burst.

About one hundred years after the First Council, the Second Council was held to consider making changes to the Vinaya rules. Positions quickly hardened with the orthodox monks (Sthavarivad) unable to reach a compromise with a greater community of monks (Mahasanghika) who walked out of the Council. The created the first deep schism in the Buddhist Sangha.

By the Third Council (c. 250 BCE), convened by King Asoka, there were differences about the contents of both the Dharma and the Vinaya. The commission of the Council was to reconcile the differences that had arisen amongst the various schools of Buddhism and to purify the movement from the opportunistic factions that had been attracted solely by Ashoka's royal patronage. "The Teachings of the Elders" (Sthaviras or Theravada) approved and accepted by this Council came only after twelve years of negotiations.

Nonetheless, the heretical views and theories continued to exist and expand after the Third Council's conclusion. By the time of the Fourth Council, Buddhism had completely split into the Mahayana and Hinayana schools. Only because King Asoka son, Ven. Mahinda, brought the "Pali-canon" (Tripitaka), along with the commentaries recited at The Third Council, to Sri Lanka was Theraveda Buddhism preserved.

At the Fourth Council held in Kashmir around 100 CE, 500 monks labored for twelve years to edit the Tripitaka, the threefold collection of sacred texts covering Buddha's Discourses, monastic discipline, and higher teachings. The monks extensively emended the Tripitaka's three Suttas with references and commentaries leading some to dub this the "council of heretical monks". The Mahayana Buddhists believed that their religious canon was still open and they continued to incorporate new literature in it for more than one thousand years after Buddha's death.

The new scriptures were re-written in the classical language of Sanskrit instead of the traditional Pali script. Its promulgation permanently established the Buddhist schism because the new Sanskrit canon was never recognized by the Theravada school. These orthodox Buddhists refused to accept

*The elevation of Buddha as a god,

*Worship of Buddha's image in the form of idols,

*The adoption of elaborate rituals from Hinduism, and

*The abandonment of a rigorous ascetic life in monasteries.

Shortly after the Fourth Council, the mendicant monk Nagarjuna (c. 150-250 CE) started to found the Madhyamaka (Middle Way) school of Buddhist philosophy based on some hidden texts that Buddha had preordained him to recover. Nagarjura's interpretations and explanations of the sutras in the "Perfection of Wisdom" texts was the precursor to the emergence of the Mahayana school of Buddhism, which has continued to be the most widely followed.

The Yoga Practice School (Yogachara)of Mahayana Buddhism was developed b y two brothers Asanga (c. 310-390 CE) and Vasubandhu (c. 320-400 CE). Its main scriptural source is the Suttra Explaining the Thought (Samdhinirmochana-sutra) it follows the methods given in Asanga's tretise entitled The levels of Yoga Practice (Yogachara-bhumi). This school emphasizes meditative practice as it believes that all perceived things are conditioned by consciousness.

Somewhere between the 4th and 7th centuries CE, Vajrayana (Tantrayana) Buddhism began to evolve out of the Mahayana school. Based on texts purporting to record what the historical Buddha said, Tantric Buddhism prescribes the use of visualizations, prayers (mantras), and elaborate rituals to reach the Mahayana ideal of Buddhahood. Its teachings are aimed at lay persons rather than monks or nuns and offers a path of realization into the embodiment of the divine which can be reached in a single lifetime. Its emphasis on spiritual physiology utilizes various forms of sexual yoga.

By the time of the Fifth Council (1868-1871) and the Sixth Council (1954-1956), Buddhism had been driven completely out of India. Both the Fifth and Sixth Councils were held in Burma, which was another stronghold of Theravada Buddhism. These were the last revisions of the Pali Canon. The Mahayana school of Buddhism, which was, followed elsewhere in Asia, with the exceptions of Tibet and Thailand, was not involved in the last two Buddhists Councils.

Reliance on Royal Patronage

Buddha died "leaving a thriving monastic order and a dedicated lay community to continue his work."13 This in itself was not sufficient to provide strong internal integrity to prevent corruption of their religious faith or to band together the multitude of Buddhist monastic orders, which subsequently developed, to ward off external foes. With Buddha denying divine enlightenment or mission, his sangha could not organize itself into an Episcopal authority with bishops who would be regarded to form an Apostolic succession from Buddha's original disciples. Similarly the Buddhist emphasis on equality among equals seeking individual enlightenment precluded the governance of a sangha by a Presbyterian type Council of Elders.

Instead the sanghas evolved into Congregational-type self-governing bodies of monks. The eldest monk was normally recognized as their temporal leader only. The Congregational style of organization does not require that leaders from one sangha be necessarily regarded as having equivalent status and respect by another sangha. This lead to great diversity in religious practice and non-pooling of resources as new sanghas continued to be formed. It also meant that each individual sangha needed to find its own sources of funding.

Any person, regardless of caste, could be admitted or ordained into an Sangha of Buddhist monks or nuns. An equivalent organization for the laity was never formed. Indeed, there was not even a manual for the Buddhist laity until the 11th century CE. Buddhism was self-contained within the sangha. Its members (Bhikkus) were expected to lead an ascetic life, sustaining themselves from alms, which could be accepted if given willingly without asking. The need to move from house to house to collect alms oriented the Bhikkus towards intense missionary work since they had to have some cause to call at any door.

Nonetheless, Buddhism always received royal patronage from its inception and alms have never provided the main source of support for its monks. Throughout Medieval times, Indian royalty and merchants became patrons of Buddhist monasteries and raised hemispherical stone sculptures known as stupas over relics of the Buddha.

Buddha himself was heavily patronized by Ajatashatru, the king of what is now the state of Bihar in north India. The various orders always remained highly dependent on Royal patronage and the endowments accumulated there from. After Buddha's death, Bhikkus gradually propagated that the continuance of the Sangha and the ability to reach Nirvana with any certainty dictated a monastic way of life. Buddha's ideal of non-possession (aparigraha) had then to be deemed applicable only to individual monks not to Buddhist organizations like monasteries and libraries.

In the 3rd Century BCE, Samrat Ashoka Maurya, who ruled nearly all of present day India plus Pakistan and Afghanistan, was converted to Buddhism. The Buddhist faith grew rapidly with his patronage. Ashoka sent many Buddhist missions to West Asia, Greece, and South East Asia; commissioned the construction of monasteries and universities; and supported publication of Buddhist literature across the empire. He is believed to have built as many as 84,000 stupas across India, and increased the popularity of Buddhism in Afghanistan.

King Ashoka even sent a mission led by his son and daughter to Sri Lanka, whose King Tissa was so charmed with Buddhist ideals that he adopted it himself and made it the state religion. Ashoka helped convene the Third Buddhist Council of India and founded South Asia's Buddhist orders near his capital, which undertook much of the work in the reform and expansion of Buddhism.

While himself a Buddhist, Ashoka retained the membership of Hindu priests and ministers in his court, and maintained religious freedom and tolerance. Indian society began embracing the philosophy of ahimsa, the moral principle of non-violence and respect for life. This opposed the practice of animal sacrifice, so central to Brahmanism, and was probably the basis for the adoption of vegetarian diets by Buddhists and Hindus alike. Under Ashoka's Maurryan dynasty, social freedom began expanding in an age of peace and prosperity. The caste system and orthodox discrimination were greatly discouraged as Hinduism began inculcating the ideals and values of Jain and Buddhist teachings.

About fifty years after Ashoka's death, the Sunga dynasty (185-73 BCE) overthrew the last Mauryan ruler and started persecuting the Buddhist faith. King Pusyamitra Sunga, the first ruler, supposedly destroyed the 84,000 Buddhist stupas built by Ashoka, offered 100 gold coins for the head of each Buddhist monk, and converted a number of Buddhist monasteries into Hindu temples.

Elsewhere, Buddhism continued to enjoy varying degrees of royal patronage from one king or another. The next major royal patron of Buddhism was Kusgana (aka Kaniska), a Mongol King who ruled north India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan in the 1st Century BCE. He underwrote the Fourth Buddhist Council in the Indian Punjab, which attempted and failed to heal the split of Buddhism into two competing schools.

During the reign of the Gupta kings in the 3rd and 4th Centuries CE, a major center of Mahayana learning was founded at Nalanda in northeastern India. Nagarjuna (c, 150-250 CE) was its most famous teacher and is credited with founding the Madhyamaka (Middle Way) school of Buddhist philosophy, which centered on the doctrine of emptiness. This soon led to the emergence of Mahayana Buddhism marking a clear distinction between the two main schools of Buddhism found today.

The Mahayana school continued to expand thereafter in India under royal patronage. In the 7th century CE the white Hun and early Islamic invasions, such as that of Muhammad bin Qasim, weakened support for Buddhism in the conquered portions of India, especially among the merchant classes who tended to sponsor Buddhism. Even so, Harsh Vardhana, the 7th century CE ruler over a large portion of north India, extended many favors to the religion despite his being an ardent worshiper of the Hindu god Shiva. Most notable was sponsorship of the 5th Buddhist Council in 643 CE.

Thereafter, Buddhism went into a steady decline culminating in the 1193 capture of Dehli by the Turkish commander, Qutb-ud-Din. Early victories in 1192 and 1194 of the North Indian kingdoms by the Afghan raider Mahmud Ghori had opened up the passage way to the Gangetic plains of India where the Buddhist centers of learning were located. The death knell for Buddhism in India was sounded late in 1193 CE when Turkic-Islamic warriors led by Muhammad Khilji destroyed the great Buddhist library at Nalanda slaughtering all the monks.

Brahmanism beaten and battered by the Muslim invaders could look to the rulers for support and sustenance and get it. Buddhism beaten and battered by the Muslim invaders had no such hope. It was an uncared orphan and it withered in the cold blast of native rulers and was consumed in the fire lit up by the conquerors.

-Dr. B.R. Ambedkar

After the 12th Century Moslem invasion, Buddhism continued to flourish in Bihar and Bengal only because the Pãla kings liberally supported their monasteries.14 Indeed when the Senas (1097-1223 CE) gained rule of Bengal, Buddhism was pushed out towards Tibet while Hindu Saivism was promulgated in its place.

Buddhism failed to obtain any support or weal from the Islamic conquerors because the Muslims sought to convert the Indian population rather than assimilate into it. If for no other reason than conversion to Islam required male circumcision, Indians did not readily agree to become Muslim. This left a large, amorphous population of non-Muslims needing civil order and administrative agencies if long-term occupation were to succeed. The Buddhist religion was at that time entirely maintained by various orders of monks not lay persons and had no influence over the civic or social matters of ordinary Indians. Consequently, Buddhists who did not convert to Islam were wantonly killed and their physical institutions razed to the ground.

Muslim invaders made it a point to extirpate Buddhism from India. They destroyed every vihara, where the monks lived and taught. Thus the 500 viharas built by Ashoka in Kashmir and the 600 feet high stupa built by Kanishka were the first to be destroyed. . . . The invaders also destroyed Taxila and Nalanda, the two great Buddhist universities. The cream of Buddhist scholarship lived here. Thus, every symbol of Buddhism was destroyed as part of a deliberate policy.15

Lacking sufficient other trained civil administrators, the new Muslim rulers simply left the Brahmin-controlled social structure in place without requiring wholesale Brahmin conversion. The Muslims derogatively called everybody who was not a Muslim a "Hindu". Brahmins were simply regarded as the masters of the Hindus.

Moslem Conquest

In the centuries before and after the Christian era, foreign invaders did not face strong military opposition and peacefully settled new kingdoms in India without having to deal with constant rebellions. Greeks, Saksa, Pahlavas, Kusanas, and Hunas all quietly assimilated into Indian society because of the ameliorating effect of the Buddhists tenets of equality, liberty, tolerance, and social harmony on Aryan Brahmanism.16 "To become the sole leaders of the country and to enforce their system of castes has always been the prime motive of Brahmanism."17 As long as Buddhism thrived, they could not achieve this goal.

The pre-Moslem invasions met with only scattered, poorly organized armies. Individual Indian tribes were unwilling to unite forces because Brahmanic ideology led each to consider themselves superior to the others. Consequently, the various Indian states were defeated one-by-one because there was no pooling of resources, unified leadership, or unity of direction among them.

The gateway into India for all invaders was the northwestern region of India (i.e. Afghanistan and Pakistan). For many centuries this remained a Brahman stronghold whose rulers would often form alliances with foreign invaders to overthrow kingdoms who were not sufficiently patronizing to Brahman interests. The ideals of Kshatriya (warrior) caste chivalry also regularly led to internecine conflicts among the Indian kingdoms.18

Around 1000 CE waves of Turkic, Persian, and Afghan Muslims began major incursions through corridors of northwest India. They were able to easily defeat the Indian forces that opposed them by their ability to shoot a crossbow while riding horseback in a cavalry formation. Often no opposition emerged because one or more Brahman kingdom would conclude an alliance that allowed the invaders to proceed unmolested through some part of northwest India. A typical beneficiary of such free passage along parts of an invasion route was Mahmud of Ghazni (979-1040 CE) who carried out ferocious attacks on non-Muslim religions after establishing his base in the Punjab.

The capture of Dehli and the destruction of Nalanda by Turkish Muslims in 1193 marked the nearly complete eradication of Buddhism from India. Islamic conquests of Bihar and Bengal were completed in the 12th century CE. The Kayasthas, a community of scribes, did manage to continue supporting Buddhism in some regions of North India until about the 12th or 13th century CE. Buddhism also managed to survive in the Kashmir valley and nearby Swat valley until the 13th or 14 century CE. In Tamil Nadu and Kerala, Buddhism stayed alive until the 15th or 16th century CE.


US Department of the Army, "Buddhism" in India: A Country Study, (Sep. 1995), downloaded from URL on Apr. 21, 2006.

2 Jamanadas, K., "Conclusion, Chapter 15", Decline and Fall of Buddhism, p. 7, downloaded from URL on Apr. 26, 2006.

3 Goyal, S.R., A Religious History of Ancient India. (Meerut, India: Kusumanjio Prakashan, 1984), p. 369.

4 Singh Baath, Jasrajbir, "The Decline of Buddhism in India", Harbey Cooper Memorial 2000 Award winner, The Sikh Center Roseville, 201 Berkeley Ave., Roseville, CA 95678

5 Goyal, S.R., A Religious History of Ancient India. (Meerut, India: Kusumanjio Prakashan, 1984), p. 368.

6 Klostermaier, Klaus, "Hindu Views of Buddhism," in Roy C. Amore (ed.), Developments in Buddhist Thought: Canadian Contributions to Buddhist Studies. (Waterloo, Canada: Canadian Corporation for Studies in Religion, 1979), p. 66.

7 Basham, A.L., "Review" of R.C. Mitra, The Decline of Buddhism in India (1954), in Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 21, No. 1/3 (1958), p. 644.

8 Pals, Daniel L., "Is Religion a Sui Generis Phenomenon?" Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Vol. 55, No. 2 (Summer 1987), p. 270.

9 Basham, A.L., "Review" of R.C. Mitra, The Decline of Buddhism in India (1954), in Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 21, No. 1/3 (1958), p. 644.

10 Goyal, S.R., A Religious History of Ancient India. (Meerut, India: Kusumanjio Prakashan, 1984), p. 369.

11 Basham, A.L., "Review" of R.C. Mitra, The Decline of Buddhism in India (1954), in Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 21, No. 1/3 (1958) , p. 643.

12 Mahmood, Cynthia Keppley, "Sikh Rebellion and the Hindu Concept of Order," Asian Survey, Vol. 29, No. 3, (Mar. 1989), p. 338.

13 US Department of the Army, "Buddhism" in India: A Country Study, (Sep. 1995), downloaded from URL on Apr. 21, 2006.

14 Basham, A.L., "Review" of R.C. Mitra, The Decline of Buddhism in India (1954), in Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 21, No. 1/3 (1958), p. 645.

15 The Buddhist Channel, "Was Buddhism Driven Out of India?", downloaded from URL on Apr. 23, 2006.

16 Jamanadas, K., "Foreign Invasions and Caste, Chapter 2", Decline and Fall of Buddhism, p. 1, downloaded from URL on Apr. 26, 2006.

17 Jamanadas, K., "Conclusion, Chapter 15", Decline and Fall of Buddhism, p. 2, downloaded from URL on Apr. 26, 2006.

18 Jamanadas, K., "Foreign Invasions and Caste, Chapter 2", Decline and Fall of Buddhism, p. 10, downloaded from URL on Apr. 26, 2006.

Appendix I: TIMELINE

the Decline of Buddhism in India

Pre-historic Pakistan: Original Indus Valley Civilization: meditation, asceticism.

1800 - 1500 BCE. India: Invasion of Aryans in India: introduction of oral Vedas, Brahma, priesthood, caste system, ritual offering.

1500 BCE onwards India: development of (pre-) Hindu schools like Mimamsa, Samkhya, Vedanta.

1500-500 BCE India: The Indo-Aryans compose their religious literature (Vedas) in classical Sanskrit.

624-560 BCE North India: Birth of Siddhartha Gautama

589-525 BCE North India: Enlightenment of the Buddha in Bodhgaya (at age 36). During the full-moon night of July, the Buddha delivers his first discourse near Varanasi, introducing the world to the Four Noble Truths and commencing a 45-year career of teaching the religion he called "Dhamma-vinaya".

590-470 BCE India: Mahavir - Founder of Jainism, contemporary of the Buddha.

544-480 BCE India: Passing away of Gautama Buddha.

6th Century BCE India: the Indo-Aryan form of Brahmanism begins to be transformed into the classical forms of Hinduism under the philosophiocal challenges of Buddhism and Jainism.

543 -479 BCE India: 1st Buddhist Council in Rajaghgraha during the rains retreat following the Buddha's Parinibbana. 500 Arahant Bhikkhus, led by Ven. Mahakassapa, gather to recite the entire body of the Buddha's teachings. The recitation of the Vinaya by Ven. Upali becomes accepted as the Vinaya Pitaka; the recitation of the Dhamma by Ven. Ananda becomes established as the Sutta Pitaka.

443-379 BCE India: 2nd Buddhist Council in Vesali, 100 years after the Buddha's parinirvana, to discuss controversial points of Vinaya. The first schism of the Sangha occurs, in which the Mahasanghika school parts ways with the traditionalist Sthaviravadins. At issue is the Mahasanghika's reluctance to accept the Suttas and the Vinaya as the final authority on the Buddha's teachings. This schism marks the first beginnings of what would later evolve into Mahayana Buddhism.

297 BCE North India: King Asoka (274-236 BCE) converted to Buddhism; Buddhism developed from small local group to state religion. 

247 BCE India: 3rd Buddhist Council, convened by King Asoka at Pataliputra (Patan?) India. Disputes on points of doctrine lead to further schisms, spawning the Sarvastivadin and Vibhajjavadin sects. The two Pitakas are enlarged to include the Abidhamma, forming the Tripitaka (three baskets.)The Abhidhamma Pitaka is recited at the Council. The modern Pali Tipitaka is now essentially complete, although some scholars have suggested that at least two parts of the extant Canon -- the Parivara in the Vinaya, and the Apadana in the Sutta -- may date from a later period. Asoka sends missionaries to Sri Lanka ( his son Mahindra), Kanara, Karnataka, Kashmir, Himalaya region, Burma, Afghanistan and even Egypt, Macedonia and Cyrene. 

240 BCE Sri Lanka: Ven. Mahinda establishes the Mahavihara (Great Monastery) of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. The Vibhajjavadin community living there becomes known as the Theravadins. Mahinda's sister, Ven. Sanghamitta, arrives in Sri Lanka with a cutting from the original Bo tree, and establishes the bhikkhuni-sangha (nuns) in Sri Lanka.

236 BCE India: After death of Asoka, period of persecution of Buddhism under Pusyamitra Sunga

185 BCE India: Brahmin general Pusyamitra Sunga overthrows the Mauryan dynasty and establishes the Sunga Empire, starting of wave of persecution against Buddhism.

180 BCE India: Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius invades India as far as Pataliputra, and establishes the Indo-Greek kingdom (180-10 BCE), under which Buddhism flourishes.

c. 150 BCE India: Indo-Greek king Menander I converts to Buddhism under the sage Nāgasena, according to the account of the Milinda Panha.

1st Cent BCE India: Erection of the great Stupa at Sanchi. The Ratnaguna Samcayagatha--a summary of the Prajna Paramita is written down. This includes the oldest literal reference to Bodhisattva, Mahasattva, and Bodhiyana.

1st Century Sri Lanka: According to Theravadins, during the reign of King Vatta Gamini in Sri Lanka, the Buddhist monks assembled in Aloka Vihara and wrote down the Tripitaka in Pali. Additionally, the oldest surviving Buddhist manuscripts - indeed the oldest surviving Indian manuscripts of any kind - probably date from this period.

94 BCE Sri Lanka: 4th Buddhist Council (acc. to Theravadins) at Cave Aloka in Malaya district - see also 2nd Century India for another '4th Council'.

35 BCE Sri Lanka: King Vattagamani orders the Buddhist teachings (Theravada canon) to be committed to writing. Division between Mahavira and Abhayagiri vihara in Sri Lanka.

148 China: An Shigao, a Parthian prince and Buddhist monk, arrived in China and proceeded to make the first translations of Theravada texts into Chinese.

2nd Century India: Appearance of Mahayana Buddhism as separate school. 4th Buddhist Council in India under royal patron Kaniska. 

100s/200s Vietnam: Indian and Central Asian Buddhists travel to Vietnam.

178 China: The Kushan monk Lokaksema travels to the Chinese capital of Loyang and becomes the first known translator of Mahayana texts into Chinese.

c. 200 India: Buddhist monastic university at Nalanda flourishes; remains a world center of Buddhist study for over 1,000 years.

2nd-3rd Century India: Master Nagarjuna who is often referred to as "the second Buddha" by Tibetan and East Asian Mahayana (Great Vehicle) traditions of Buddhism. Nagarjuna trenchant criticisms of Brahminicand Buddhist substantialist philosophy, theory of knowledge and approaches to practice rested on the central concept of the "emptiness (sunyata) of all things (dharmas)". This emphasized the incessantly changing, intrangient nature of all phenomena to the vexation of opposed Verdic thought.

c. 310-400 North India: The Yoga Practice or Consciousness-Only school (Yogachara) of Mahayana Buddhism is developed through key treatises written by two brothers, Asanga and Vasubandhu. who had converted from Brahaminism. It emphasizes specific meditative practices arguing that all things are conditioned by consciousness, which can be controlled.

320-467 India: The University at Nalanda grew to support 3000-10,000 monks.

320 to 1000 India: Development of Vajrayana Buddhism, based on Mahayana. 

4th Century India: Master Vasubandhu; known for his teachings on mind-only (Cittamatrin) and worship of Amitabha, desire for rebirth in the Pure Land, leading to the development of the later Pure Land schools.

4th Century Sri lanka: King Mahasena introduces Mahayana monks. 

4th-7th Centuries India: Vajrayana or Tantrayana Buddhism emerged from Mahayana Buddhism as the third major vehicle (Yana) of Buddhism alongside Theravada and Mahayana. It offers additional techniques (upaya) to enable lay persons to reach Buddahood in a single lifetime or less. It is a core part of every Tibetan Buddhist school. Tantric Buddhism's emphasis on spiritual physiology utilizes various forms of sexual yoga.

399-414 India: Fa Xian travelled from China to India, then returned to translate Buddhist works in to Chinese.

425 Sri Lanka: Buddhaghosa composes the Visuddhimagga (The Path of Purity) which eventually becomes the classic Sri Lankan textbook on the Buddha's teachings.

485 Japan: Five monks from Gandhara travel to the country of Fusang (Japan, or possibly the American continent), where they introduced Buddhism.

499 India: Monks of the Sarvastivadin school decide on new canon.

c. 550-600 India: Life of Chandrakirti, an abbot of Nalanda, whose works include the Prasannapada (Clear Words), the highly acclaimed commentary on Nagarjuna's Mulamadhyamakakarika, and the Madhyamakavatara, his supplement to Nagarjuna's text,and its auto-commentary. The Madhyamakavatara is used as the main sourcebook by most of the Tibetan monastic colleges in their studies of emptiness and the philosophy of the Madhyamaka school.

6th Century Kashmir: invasion of Huns with persecution of monks. After their departure, slow restoration.

600s India: Xuan Zang travelled to India, noting the persecution of Buddhists by Sasanka (king of Gouda, a state in north-west Bengal), before returning to Chang An in China to translate Buddhist scriptures. End of sporadic Buddhist rule in the Sindh.

c. 689-740 India: The life of the Indian sage, Shantarakshita, abbot of Nalanda University, who is believed to have been instrumental in the introduction of Buddhism to Tibet. He was brought to Tibet at the instigation of King Trisong Detsen, some time before 767 CE, and oversaw the translation of a large body of scriptures into Tibetan.

c. 740-790 Tibet: The life of Kamalashila, a Indian Tantric Buddhist philosopher, who insisted that only after extensive mental and moral training under a master could enlightenment be obtained. His two year debate (792-794) against the Chinese Buddhist monk, Mo-ho-yen, led to the royal establishment of Tantric Buddhism as the state religion of Tibet.

788-820 India: The life of Shankara, an ascetic Hindu philosopher and theologian, who traveled widely arguing against Buddhist atheism and reformed Hinduism with a monistic interpretation of the Vedanta. His Advaita Vedana school of Hinduism ascribed all reality to a single unitary source, identified as "Brahma". He declared all plurality and differentiation as nothing but an illusion. Shankara founds five Hindu universities to propagate his philosophy.

700s Afghanistan: Under the reign of King Trisong Deutsen, Padmasambhava traveled from Afghanistan to establish Tantric Buddhism in Tibet (later known as the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism), replacing Bonpo as the kingdom's main religion. Buddhism quickly spreads to Sikkim and Bhutan.

7th and 8th Century Kashmir: revival of Buddhism, strong influence of tantric schools. 

810 India: King Devapala (ca. 810-845) donates the "income of five villages" for the founding and preservation of a Buddhist Library and Sutra copying facility at the Nalanda Universities.

c. 1000 India: Waves of Turkic, Persian, and Afghan Muslim invaders begin to male major incursions through the corridors of northwest India.

979-1040 India: Mahmud of Ghazni carries out ferocious attacks on non-Muslims after estab lishing his base in the Punjab.

10th and 11th Century Sri Lanka: disruption of Sri Lankan sangha by Tamil Nadu invaders. Lineage of nun ordination dies out

1050 Sri Lanka: disruption of sangha by Tamil Nadu invaders. Lineage of nuns ordination dies out.

1070 Sri Lanka: reinstatement of monks ordination 

1097-1233 India: Senas gain rule of Bengal from the Pala kings and promoted Hindu Saivism while pushing Buddhist out toward Tibet.

11-13th Centuries India: Encounter with Islam, iconoclasm, decline of (mainly Mahayana) Buddhism in Northern India. Sacking of Nalanda university in 1197, and Vikramasila University in 1203 by Muslims. 

1164 Sri Lanka: Polonnaruwa destroyed by foreign invasion. With the guidance of two monks from a forest branch of the Mahavihara sect -- Vens. Mahakassapa and Sariputta -- King Parakramabahu reunites all bhikkhus in Sri Lanka into the Mahavihara sect. 

1192 & 1194Pakistan: The Afghan raider opens up the passage ways to the Gangetic plains of the Indian heartland.

1193 India: The Turkish Commander, Qutb-ud-Din captures Dehli, Turkic -Islamic warriors under Muhammad Khilji raze the Buddist university at Nalanda.

12th Century Sri Lanka: King Parrakama Bahu abolishes schools other than Mahavira

1236 Shri Lanka: monks from India revive monk ordination lineage.

15th Century India: Final decline of Buddhism in Southern India, due to influence of various Hindu schools.

16th Century: Sri Lanka; persecution and virtual eradication of Buddhism.

17th Century Sri Lanka: reintroduction of Dharma twice from Burma (same as original tradition)

1753 Sri Lanka: reinstatement of monks ordination from Thailand - the Siyam Nikaya lineage.

c. 1860 Sri Lanka: against all expectations, the monastic and lay community brought about a major revival in Buddhism, a movement that went hand in hand with growing nationalism. The revival followed a period of persecution by foreign powers. Since then Buddhism has flourished and Sri Lankan monks and expatriate lay people have been prominent in spreading Theravada Buddhism in Asia, the West and even in Africa.

1879 Burma: A council was convened under the patronage of King Mindon of Burma to re-edit the Pali canon. The king then had the texts engraved on 729 stones, which were then set upright on the grounds of a monastery near Mandalay.

1949 India: Mahabodhi Temple in Bodh Gaya is returned to partial Buddhist control.

1950 Sri Lanka: World Fellowship of Buddhists is founded in Colombo, Sri Lanka.

1956 India: Indian untouchable leader B. R. Ambedkar converts to Buddhism with more than 350,000 followers, beginning the modern Neo-Buddhist movement.

1966 Sri Lanka: World Buddhist Sangha Council convened by Theravadins in Sri Lanka with the hope of bridging differences and working together. The first convention was attended by leading monks, from many countries and sects, Mahayana as well as Theravada. Nine Basic Points Unifying the Theravada and Mahayana written by Ven. Walpola Rahula were approved unanimously;

2004 Sri Lanka: Buddhist monks acting as candidates for the Jaathika Hela Urumaya party win nine seats in elections.

Appendix II

Nine basic points Uniting Therevada and Mahayana Buddhism

1. The Buddha is our only Master.

2. We take refuge in the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha.

3. We do not believe that this world is created and ruled by a God.

4. We consider that the purpose of life is to develop compassion for all living beings without discrimination and to work for their good, happiness, and peace; and to develop wisdom leading to the realization of Ultimate Truth

5. We accept the Four Noble Truths, namely Dukkha, the Arising of Dukkha, the Cessation of Dukkha, and the Path leading to the Cessation of Dukkha; and the law of cause and effect (Pratitya-samutpada)

6. All conditioned things (samskaara) are impermanent (anitya) and dukkha, and that all conditioned and unconditioned things (dharma) are without self (anaatma).

7. We accept the Thirty-seven Qualities conducive to Enlightenment (bodhipak-sadharma) as different aspects of the Path taught by the Buddha leading to Enlightenment.

8. There are three ways of attaining bodhi or Enlightenment: namely as a disciple (sraavaka), as a Pratyeka-Buddha and as a Samyak-sam-Buddha (Perfectly and Fully Enlightened Buddha). We accept it as the highest, noblest, and most heroic to follow the career of a Bodhisattva and to become a Samyak-sam-Buddha in order to save others.

9. We admit that in different countries there are differences regarding Buddhist beliefs and practices. These external forms and expressions should not be confused with the essential teachings of the Buddha.


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